Resources for Learning About Walter Greenwood

This has lists of Greenwood’s fiction and non-fiction, then critical sources on Greenwood. Finally, if you scroll down, is an annotated list of key sources on Walter.

  1. Walter Greenwood’s Published Fiction

Love on the Dole (London: Jonathan Cape, 1933; Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1969, 1992).

His Worship The Mayor (London: Jonathan Cape, 1935).

Standing Room Only, or ‘A Laugh in Every Line’

(Jonathan Cape, London, 1936; Howard Baker, London, 1970).

The Cleft Stick, or, ‘It’s the Same the Whole World Over, with illustrations by Arthur Wragg (London: Selwyn & Blount, 1937).

The Secret Kingdom (London: Jonathan Cape, 1938; Leeds: Morley-Baker, 1970).

Only Mugs Work (London: Hutchinson, 1938).

Something in My Heart (London: Hutchinson, 1944).

So Brief the Spring (London: Hutchinson, 1952).

What Everybody Wants (London: Hutchinson, 1954).

Down by the Sea (London: Hutchinson, 1956).

Saturday Night at the Crown (London: Hutchinson, 1959).

The only novel currently in print is Love on the Dole, which is easy to obtain. Reading copies of the other novels are quite regularly offered for  sale at usually reasonable prices by second-hand and online booksellers.

2. Walter Greenwood’s Non-Fiction

‘Langy Road’ in Greene, Graham, The Old School – Essays by Divers Hands (London: Jonathan Cape, 1934).

How the Other Man Lives (London: Labour Book Service, 1940).

Lancashire, County Book Series (London: Hale, 1951).

There Was a Time (London: Jonathan Cape, 1967).

 

3. Walter Greenwood Special Collection, University of Salford: see description of contents: https://beta.salford.ac.uk/sites/default/files/library/archives/2019/Greenwood.xml

4. Critical Works on Walter Greenwood

4.1 Articles and Essays

Colligan, Collette, ‘“Hope on, hope ever. One of these fine days my ship will come in:” The Politics of Hope in Walter Greenwood’s Love on the Dole (1933)’, Postgraduate English: A Journal and Forum for Postgraduates in English in the UK and Europe, Vol. 3. March 2001: Article.

Constantine, Stephen, ‘Love on the Dole and its Reception in the 1930s’, Literature and History, Vol. 8. Autumn 1982, pp. 232–47. Available only in hard copy of the journal.

Gaughan, Matthew, ‘Palatable Socialism or “the Real Thing”?: Walter Greenwood’s Love on the Dole’, Literature and History, Vol. 17, no. 2. 2008.   Abstract

Harker, Ben, ‘Adapting to the Conjuncture – Walter Greenwood, History and Love on the Dole’, Keywords – a Journal of Cultural Materialism, Vol. 7. 2009, pp. 55–72. Journal

Hopkins, Chris, ‘The Army of the Unemployed: Walter Greenwood’s Wartime Novel and the Reconstruction of Britain’, Keywords – A Journal of Cultural Materialism, Vol. 10. October 2012. Journal

Levine, Carole, ‘Propaganda for Democracy: the Curious Case of Love on the Dole’, Journal of British Studies, Vol. 45. October 2006. Article

O’Brien, Phil,  ‘Too much preoccupied with dole and dolour’: Walter Greenwood’s Search for the Radical and the Popular in His Worship the Mayor’ in Literature & History, May 2018, Vol.27(1), pp.28-46.Abstract

Snee, Carole, ‘Working-Class Literature or Proletarian Writing?’ in Culture and Crisis in Britain in the Thirties, ed. Jon Clark, Margot Heinemann, David Margolies and Carole Snee (London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1979, pp. 165–91.

Warden, Claire, ‘Ugliness and Beauty: the Politics of Landscape in Walter Greenwood’s Love on the Dole’, New Theatre Quarterly, Vol. 29, no. 1. February 2013, pp.35-47. Abstract

Windle, Jack, ‘“What life means for those at the bottom”: Love on the Dole and its reception since the 1930s’, Literature & History, 3rd series, Vol. 20. Abstract

4.2 Books (with specific discussions of Greenwood, though of varying length)

Aldgate, Anthony and Jeffrey Richards, Britain Can Take It: British Cinema in the Second World War (London: I. B. Tauris, 1986, 2007).

Aldgate, Anthony and James C. Robertson, Censorship in Theatre and Cinema (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005).

Baxendale, John and Chris Pawling, Narrating the Thirties: a Decade in the Making 1930 to the Present (Basingstoke: Palgrave-Macmillan, 1995).

Brown, Geoff (with Tony Aldgate), The Common Touch – the Films of John Baxter (London: NFT Dossier No. 5. BFI, 1989).

Chinn, Carl, Better Betting with a Decent Feller: A Social History of Bookmaking (London: Aurum Press, 2004).

Clark, Jon, Margot Heinemann, David Margolies and Carole Snee, Culture and Crisis in Britain in the Thirties (London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1979).

Constantine, Stephen, Unemployment in Britain Between the Wars, Seminar Studies in History (London: Longman, 1980).

Cook, Chris and John Stevenson, The Slump: Britain in the Great Depression (London: Longman, 2010).

Croft, Andy, Red Letter Days: British Fiction in the 1930s (London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1990).

Cunningham, Valentine, British Writers of the Thirties (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988).

Day, Gary, Class, New Critical Idiom Series (London: Routledge, 1991).

Dictionary of National Biography (online).

D’Monté Rebecca, British Theatre and Performance 1900–1950 (London: Bloomsbury Methuen, 2015.

Flynn, Tony, Hanky Park (Salford: Neil Richardson, 1990).

Flynn, Tony, The History of Salford Cinemas (Salford: Neil Richardson, 1987).

Fox, Pamela, Class Fictions – Shame and Resistance in the British Working-Class Novel, 1890–1945 (London: Duke University Press, 1994).

Frow, Edmund and Ruth, Radical Salford – Episodes in Labour History (Manchester: Neil Richardson, 1984).

Frow, Edmund and Ruth, The Battle of Bexley Square: Salford Unemployed Workers’ Demonstration, 1st October 1931 (Manchester: Working Class

Movement Library, 1994).

Hawthorn, Jeremy (ed.), The British Working-Class Novel in the Twentieth Century (London: Edward Arnold, 1984).

Hayward, Ian, Working-Class Fiction from Chartism to Trainspotting (London: Edward Arnold, 1997).

Hilliard, Christopher, To Exercise Our Talents: the Democratization of Writing in Britain (Cambridge, Massachusetts/London: Harvard University Press, 2006).

Hopkins, Chris, English Fiction in the 1930s: Language, Genre, History (London: Continuum, 2006).

Hopkins, Chris, Walter Greenwood’s Love on the Dole: Novel, Play, Film (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2018)

Johnson, George M. (ed.), Dictionary of Literary Biography Vol. 191: British Novelists Between the Wars (Detroit, Michigan: Gale Research, 1998).

Kirk, John, Twentieth Century Writing and the British Working Class (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2003).

Kunitz, Stanley J. and Howard Haycraft (eds), Twentieth Century Authors: a Biographical Dictionary of Modern Literature (New York: H. W. Wilson, 1942).

Low, Rachel, Film Making in 1930s Britain (London: Allen & Unwin, 1985).

McKibbin, Ross, The Ideologies of Class: Social Relations in Britain 1880–1950

(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994).

Mannin, Ethel, Young in the Twenties – a Chapter of Autobiography (London: Hutchison, 1971).

Miles, Peter and Malcolm Smith, Cinema, Literature & Society: Elite and Mass Society in Interwar Britain (London: Croom Helm, 1987).

Mowat, Charles Loch, Britain Between the Wars 1918–1940 (London: Methuen, 1955, 1968).

Murphy, Robert, British Cinema and the Second World War (London: Continuum, 2001).

Murphy, Robert, Realism and Tinsel: Cinema and Society in Britain 1939–1949

(London: Routledge, 1989, 1992).

Nicholson, Steve, The Censorship of British Drama 1932–1952 (Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 2000).

Overy, Richard, The Morbid Age: Britain and the Crisis of Civilization 1919–1939 (London: Allen Lane, 2009; Harmondsworth: Penguin, 2010).

Periyan, Natasha, ‘Writers of the Old School: Graham Greene, Walter Greenwood, Stephen Spender, Antonia White and Arthur Calder Marshall’ in The Politics of British Literature: Education, Class, Gender (London: Bloomsbury 2018, Kindle edition: locations 3043 to 3296).

Powell, Dilys, Films Since 1939 (London: Longmans, Green and Co for the British Council, 1947).

Richards, Jeffrey, The Age of the Dream Palace: Cinema and Society in Britain,

1930–1939 (London: Routledge, 1984; New York: I. B. Tauris, 2010).

Richards, Jeffrey and Dorothy Sheridan (eds), Mass Observation at the Movies

(London: Routledge, 1987).

Ross, Stephen A., ‘Authenticity Betrayed: the “Idiot Folk” of Love on the Dole’, Cultural Critique, Vol. 56. December 2004, pp. 189–209.

Russell, Dave, Looking North – Northern England and the National Imagination (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004).

Sherry, Norman, The Life of Graham Greene 1904–1939, Vol. 1 (London:

Jonathan Cape, 1989).

Stevenson, John, British Society 1914–1945, Penguin Social History of Britain

(Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1984).

Stevenson, John and Chris Cook, Britain in the Depression: Society and

Politics 1929–39 (London: Longman, 1994).

Taylor, A. J. P., English History 1914–1945 (Oxford: Oxford University Press,

1965; Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1970).

Thorpe, Andrew, Britain in the 1930s: the Deceptive Decade (Oxford,

Blackwell, 1992).

Webster, Roger, ‘Love on the Dole and the Aesthetic of Contradiction’, in  The British Working-Class Novel in the Twentieth Century, ed. Jeremy Hawthorn (London: Edward Arnold, 1984), pp. 49–61.

Whitman, Willson, Bread and Circuses: a Study of Federal Theatre (New

York: Oxford University Press, 1937).

Wilson, Nicola, Home in British Working-Class Fiction (Farnham: Ashgate,

2015).

4.3 Selected Key works about Greenwood with Annotations.

Journal Articles

Colligan, Collette, ‘“Hope on, hope ever. One of these fine days my ship will come in:” The Politics of Hope in Walter Greenwood’s Love on the Dole (1933)’, Postgraduate English: A Journal and Forum for Postgraduates in English in the UK and Europe, Vol. 3. March 2001: Article. Argues that hope is prominent but highly ambiguous in the novel: it is a source of partial personal optimism (the horse may come in first, someone may win the Irish Sweepstake), but also leads to addiction to betting and often the blanking out of political awareness which might potentially improve the situation of everyone in Hanky Park.

Constantine, Stephen, ‘Love on the Dole and its Reception in the 1930s’, Literature and History, Vol. 8. Autumn 1982, pp. 232–47. Available only in hard copy of the journal. The key and first historical/critical article on Love on the Dole as an influential phenomenon of the thirties. Argues that part of the novel and play’s wide impact came from its avoiding holding upper and middle-class people directly responsible for the deprivation of the unemployed in places such as Hanky Park.

Gaughan, Matthew, ‘Palatable Socialism or “the Real Thing”?: Walter Greenwood’s Love on the Dole’, Literature and History, Vol. 17, no. 2. 2008. Abstract Develops further Constantine’s argument, turning its attention particularly to the ways in which Greenwood might be seen as manipulating the social realities of Salford in order to appeal to middle-class tastes, and thus producing only a weak form of ‘palatable socialism’ in his novel.

Harker, Ben, ‘Adapting to the Conjuncture – Walter Greenwood, History and Love on the Dole’, Keywords – a Journal of Cultural Materialism, Vol. 7. 2009, pp. 55–72.Journal Refines further Constantine’s arguments about Greenwood’s Love on the Dole as politically tactful towards the status quo, especially by looking at the adaptation process from novel to play and then to film. Harker looks in detail at what were in fact two markedly different textual versions of the play – the first Manchester production and the subsequent London production. He argues that the two productions tempered progressively further the potential radicalism of the novel, but also that some adaptation decisions in the Manchester text introduced a new analysis of emerging fascism not present in the earlier novel text.

Hopkins, Chris, ‘The Army of the Unemployed: Walter Greenwood’s Wartime Novel and the Reconstruction of Britain’, Keywords – A Journal of Cultural Materialism, Vol. 10. October 2012.Journal Discusses the text and context of Greenwood’s completely forgotten wartime novel. Something in My Heart (1944), which, as contemporary reviews recognised, was a sequel to Love on the Dole. Argues that Greenwood’s novel took up the idea of ‘the people’s war’ from the Ministry of Information and used it to argue for the necessity of transforming post-war society into a truly democratic and egalitarian one. The main characters of the novel are unemployed men from Salford who serve in the RAF and expect a very different life for everyone after the war.

Levine, Carole, ‘Propaganda for Democracy: the Curious Case of Love on the Dole’, Journal of British Studies, Vol. 45. October 2006.Article The first article to discuss how and why the absolute thirties prohibition of a film version of Love on the Dole by the British Board of Film Censors was overturned by the wartime Ministry of Information in 1940, and how the film became part of a ‘people’s war narrative’.

O’Brien, Phil, ‘Too much preoccupied with dole and dolour’: Walter Greenwood’s Search for the Radical and the Popular in His Worship the Mayor’ in Literature & History, May 2018, Vol.27 (1), pp.28-46.Abstract Explores the reception and history of Greenwood’s now neglected second novel, His Worship the Mayor (1935), which was in fact often seen in the thirties as equally good or even better than Love on the Dole. Looks also at the play adaptation (Give Us This Day, 1935), which was mainly seen as less of a commercial success than its predecessor, as well as at the radio career of the play and its brushes with censorship. Argues that this important work and its reception repays further attention, partly because, unlike Love on the Dole, it does attribute blame to the upper and middle classes and social elites in Salford. Concludes that the work and it history reflects Greenwood’s difficulties in finding an ‘acceptable mediation between popular appeal and political radicalism’ (abstract, p.28).

Periyan, Natasha, ‘Writers of the Old School: Graham Greene, Walter Greenwood, Stephen Spender, Antonia White and Arthur Calder Marshall’ in The Politics of British Literature: Education, Class, Gender (London: Bloomsbury 2018, Kindle edition: locations 3043 to 3296). Explores Greenwood’s critical account of his education in Graham Greene’s book about education in Britain in the thirties, The Old School: Essays by Divers Hands (1934), and then links this to Greenwood’s representation of education, class and politics in his novel Love on the Dole (1933), in rarely cited newspaper articles by Greenwood from the thirties, and in his 1967 memoir, There Was a Time.

Warden, Claire, ‘Ugliness and Beauty: the Politics of Landscape in Walter Greenwood’s Love on the Dole’, New Theatre Quarterly, Vol. 29, no. 1. February 2013, pp.35-47. Abstract Explores the play through its spatial representations of the North-west of England, drawing on the concept of landscape theatre and on Raymond Williams’ ‘city-country dialogism’ (abstract). Argues that different spaces are not just backdrops but act as characters in the play and that while Greenwood regards the rural as inevitably ‘tainted’ by the industrial and capitalism, he nevertheless sees it as a possible source of ‘socialistic hope’ (abstract).

Windle, Jack, ‘“What life means for those at the bottom”:  Love on the Dole and its reception since the 1930s’, Literature & History, 3rd series, Vol. 20.Abstract  Argues that the critical reception of Love on the Dole from the thirties onwards has consistently underrated its artistic complexity, and that elements of its radical and feminist arguments rooted in northern working-class history have not been fully noticed. Is partly a counter-argument to the critique that Greenwood’s novel was overly bourgeois and timorous in its aesthetics and politics.

Books (providing context for Walter Greenwood and Love on the Dole, and in most cases some specific discussion)

Aldgate, Anthony and Jeffrey Richards, Britain Can Take It: British Cinema in the Second World War (London: I. B. Tauris, 1986, 2007). Provides useful context for and analysis of the wartime cinema to which the film adaptation of Love on the Dole (1941) contributed.

Aldgate, Anthony and James C. Robertson, Censorship in Theatre and Cinema (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005). Key contexts for understanding British censorship in the thirties, when the play version of Love on the Dole was widely performed, yet a film version was in effect prohibited by the British Board of Film Censors (until they unexpectedly changed their view in wartime).

Baxendale, John and Chris Pawling, Narrating the Thirties: a Decade in the Making 1930 to the Present (Basingstoke: Palgrave-Macmillan, 1995). Provides analysis of how the politics, culture and literature of the thirties in Britain have been remembered and variously retold and reused.

Brown, Geoff (with Tony Aldgate), The Common Touch – the Films of John Baxter (London: NFT Dossier No. 5. BFI, 1989). The only book-length study of the director who made the successful wartime film version of Love on the Dole.

Chinn, Carl, Better Betting with a Decent Feller: A Social History of Bookmaking (London: Aurum Press, 2004). Gives a historical context for the important Love on the Dole character, the bookie Sam Grundy, and has some specific discussion of him and of Greenwood’s views on working-class betting.

Constantine, Stephen, Unemployment in Britain Between the Wars, Seminar Studies in History (London: Longman, 1980). Helpful historical overview of this key context for Love on the Dole, with some specific reference to the novel by this key authority on Greenwood’s influence in the thirties.

Cook, Chris and John Stevenson, The Slump: Britain in the Great Depression (London: Longman, 2010). Another useful work on the history behind Greenwood’s work.

Croft, Andy, Red Letter Days: British Fiction in the 1930s (London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1990). Recovers the wide variety of leftist fiction which was published in the nineteen-thirties, giving a full and proper context for the work and reception of working-class writers such as Greenwood (and with some specific reference to him).

Cunningham, Valentine, British Writers of the Thirties (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988). Wide-ranging overview of writers in the period, with a number of references to Greenwood and working-class contemporaries.

Day, Gary, Class, New Critical Idiom Series (London: Routledge, 1991). Concise and helpful consideration of the representation and place of class in literature, with some specific analysis of Love on the Dole.

Dictionary of National Biography (Walter Greenwood entry; online). A recent revision of an earlier entry by someone who knew Greenwood in the post-war period: a good starting place for a concise biography.

D’Monté, Rebecca, British Theatre and Performance 1900–1950 (London: Bloomsbury Methuen, 2015). Gives a context for the play version of Love on the Dole, and makes clear how unusual it was as a successful play not only about working-class people, but by a working-class author.

Flynn, Tony, Hanky Park (Salford: Neil Richardson, 1990). Useful local history by an author who grew up in Hanky Park.

Fox, Pamela, Class Fictions – Shame and Resistance in the British Working-Class Novel, 1890–1945 (London: Duke University Press, 1994).A study of the part played by ideas of respectability and shame in working-class British writing.

Frow, Edmund and Ruth, The Battle of Bexley Square: Salford Unemployed Workers’ Demonstration, 1st October 1931 (Manchester: Working Class Movement Library, 1994). The only published work devoted to the discussion of this specific demonstration, which is variously portrayed in all three versions of Love on the Dole.

Hayward, Ian, Working-Class Fiction from Chartism to Trainspotting (London: Edward Arnold, 1997). Helpful account of the traditions of working-class fiction from the eighteenth century to the present, including the place of Love on the Dole in that lineage.

Hopkins, Chris, English Fiction in the 1930s: Language, Genre, History (London: Continuum, 2006). Provides a context for different genres and sub-genres of fiction the nineteen-thirties; includes an essay ‘Dialect and Dialectic: Region and Nation in Walter Greenwood’s Love on the Dole‘.

Hopkins, Chris, Walter Greenwood’s Love on the Dole: Novel, Play, Film (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2018). The only book-length study of Love on the Dole in all three of its versions. Argues that the impact of Love on the Dole, and the continuing celebrity of its working-class author during the nineteen-thirties, forties and fifties has been considerably under-estimated. Also includes the fullest existing literary biography of Greenwood and an overview of the novels, non-fiction, plays, radio and TV adaptations which he wrote after Love on the Dole, between 1933 and his death in 1974.

Johnson, George M. (ed.), Dictionary of Literary Biography Vol. 191: British Novelists Between the Wars (Detroit, Michigan: Gale Research, 1998). Concise but very informative entry on Greenwood by Paul W. Salmon – one of the few sources to recognise his full literary range and profile.

Kirk, John, Twentieth Century Writing and the British Working Class (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2003). Helpful account of traditions of working-class writing in the twentieth century, including specific discussions of Greenwood.

Miles, Peter and Malcolm Smith, Cinema, Literature & Society: Elite and Mass Society in Interwar Britain (London: Croom Helm, 1987). Excellent discussion of interactions between literature, film, class hierarchies, elite and popular cultures. Includes discussion of the novel and film of Love on the Dole.

Murphy, Robert, Realism and Tinsel: Cinema and Society in Britain 1939–1949 (London: Routledge, 1989, 1992). Explores different modes of film, from documentary to Hollywood romance, including Baxter’s Love on the Dole (1941), which might be said to draw on both romance and realist modes.

Overy, Richard, The Morbid Age: Britain and the Crisis of Civilization 1919–1939 (London: Allen Lane, 2009; Harmondsworth: Penguin, 2010). Excellent account of the sense of multiple crises gripping Britain after World War One. Includes some original work on the popularity of Love on the Dole, drawing on the Jonathan Cape archives.

Richards, Jeffrey, The Age of the Dream Palace: Cinema and Society in Britain, 1930–1939 (London: Routledge, 1984; New York: I. B. Tauris, 2010). Authoritative work on the cinema as a place, the habits of film-goers and the influence of film in thirties Britain. Includes specific discussion of the film of Love on the Dole.

Russell, Dave, Looking North – Northern England and the National Imagination (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004). Discusses conceptions of the north in English culture, including analysis of Love on the Dole in the context of perceptions of Lancashire.

Snee, Carole, ‘Working-Class Literature or Proletarian Writing?’ in Culture and Crisis in Britain in the Thirties, ed. Jon Clark, Margot Heinemann, David Margolies and Carole Snee (London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1979, pp. 165–91). Highly critical but stimulating Marxist critique of the novel of Love on the Dole, which sees it as denying its working-class subjects any agency of their own. Asks some key questions about Greenwood’s approach to representing his own class and about the political purpose of the novel.

Webster, Roger, ‘Love on the Dole and the Aesthetic of Contradiction’, in The British Working-Class Novel in the Twentieth Century, ed. Jeremy Hawthorn (London: Edward Arnold, 1984), pp. 49–61. Argues that fissures and contradictions in Love on the Dole are not signs of submission to bourgeois aesthetics and politics, but rather part of a deliberately anti-bourgeois irony, which shows how middle-class aesthetics, morals and politics are ideological rather than realisable.

Web-sites

Walter Greenwood: Not Just Love on the Dole: https://waltergreenwoodnotjustloveonthedole.com/ Walter Greenwood is best remembered for Love on the Dole (novel, 1933, play 1935, film 1941). However, he wrote a further nine novels between 1934 and 1956 which represent the changing conditions of British working-class families across the nineteen thirties, forties and fifties. This blog/website explores both Love on the Dole and his later novels and plays.

Walter Greenwood and Love on the Dole (Working-Class Movement Library): https://www.wcml.org.uk/our-collections/creativity-and-culture/drama-and-literature/walter-greenwood-and-love-on-the-dole/ Critique by Greenwood’s communist Salford contemporary. Eddie Frow, of Love on the Dole and Greenwood’s own relationship to political action. Includes some interesting biographical material as well as a communist perspective.

The Walter Greenwood Collection, University of Salford Archives: http://www.salford.ac.uk/__data/assets/xml_file/0007/530476/Greenwood.xml Walter Greenwood’s next of kin gave his literary papers to the University of Salford after his death in 1974. The archive includes treasures such as typescripts of original works, adaptations, letters, and Greenwood’s press clippings albums, which record the reception of his work in extraordinarily rich detail.